# Teacher Resources - Level 3 Resources

Awesome Algebra: Looking for Patterns and Generalizations

Any spreadsheet program, for example, Microsoft Excel, can be used to develop algebraic thinking. See articles related to spreadsheets for ideas.

Navigating through algebra in grades 3-5 (see Books section of resources) includes a CD-ROM.

NCTM'S Illuminations Selected Web Resources Algebra / Grades 3 - 5

The Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project Teacher's Lab: Patterns in Mathematics

TERC and Tufts University Early Algebra, Early Arithmetic
This site, developed by a research team from TERC and Tufts University, features a teaching and learning approach where traditional topics of early mathematics are taught in deeper, more challenging ways. This approach allows students to go beyond computational fluency as they begin to develop the ability to make mathematical generalizations using algebraic notation.

Building a Foundation for learning Algebra in the Elementary Grades:
This article offers practical ideas and examples about how teachers can foster algebraic thinking in elementary students through different types of number sentences, proofs, talking about mathematics and much more.

Bay-Williams, J. M. (2001).What is algebra in elementary school?
Teaching Children Mathematics, 8(4), 196-200.

Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (1998). Using computers for algebraic thinking. Teaching Children Mathematics, 5(3), 186-190.

Herbert, K., & Brown, R. H. (1997). Patterns as tools for algebraic reasoning. Teaching Children Mathematics, 3(6), 340-344.

Kaput, J., J., & Blanton, M. L. (2003). Developing elementary teachers' “Algebra Eyes and Ears”. Teaching Children Mathematics, 10(2), 70-77.

Kenney, P. A., & Silver, E. A. (1997). Probing the foundations of algebra: Grade 4 pattern items in NAEP. Teaching Children Mathematics, 3(6), 268-274.

Lubinski, C. A., & Otto, A. D. (2002). Meaningful mathematical representations and early algebraic reasoning. Teaching Children Mathematics, 9(2), 76-80.

Ploger, D., Klingler, L., & Rooney, M. (1997). Spreadsheets, patterns, and algebraic thinking. Teaching Children Mathematics,
3(6), 330-334.

Sulzer, J. S. (1998).The function box and fourth graders: Squares, cubes, and circles. Teaching Children Mathematics, 4(8), 442-447.

Vance, J.H. (1998). Number operations from an algebraic perspective.Teaching Children Mathematics, 4(5), 282-285.

Yackel, E. (1997). A foundation for algebraic reasoning in the early grades. Teaching Children Mathematics, 3(6), 276-280.

Chapin, S. H., O'Connor, C., & Anderson, N. C. (2003). Classroom discussions using math talk to help students learn, grades 1-6. Sausalito CA: Math Solutions Publications.

This book, based on a four-year research project, offers strategies to help teachers become skilled facilitators of classroom discussion that enhances the teaching and learning of mathematics in grades 1 through 6. There are specific sections of the book that focus on the mathematics in particular, including: concepts, procedures, problem solving, reasoning, terminology, symbols, definitions and forms of representation.

Cuevas, G. J.,& Yeatts, K. L. (2001). Navigating through algebra in grades 3-5. Reston VA:National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

This book with accompanying CD-ROM is written to help teachers introduce and develop fundamental algebraic concepts with students in grades 3 to 5. Important ideas of algebra–such as patterns, variables and equations, and functions–are the focus of this book. Its student activities introduce and promote familiarity with these ideas. The supplemental CD-ROM features interactive electronic activities, master copies of handouts, and additional readings.

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