Taxonomy of Type II Process Skills



Deborah E. Burns, 1994

  1. COGNITIVE TRAINING

    1. Analysis Skills
    2. Identifying characteristics
      Recognizing attributes
      Making an observation
      Discriminating between same and different
      Comparing and contrasting
      Categorizing
      Classifying
      Criteria setting
      Ranking, prioritizing, and sequencing
      Seeing relationships
      Determining cause and effect
      Pattern finding
      Predicting
      Making analogies
    3. Organization Skills
    4. Memorizing
      Summarizing
      Metacognition
      Goal setting
      Formulating questions
      Developing hypotheses
      Generalizing
      Problem solving
      Decision making
      Planning
    5. Critical Thinking Skills
    6. Inductive thinking
      Deductive thinking
      Determining reality and fantasy
      Determining benefits and drawbacks
      Identifying value statements
      Identifying points of view
      Determining bias
      Identifying fact and opinion
      Determining the accuracy of presented information
      Judging essential and incidental evidence
      Determining relevance
      Identifying missing information
      Judging the credibility of a source
      Determining warranted and unwarranted claims
      Recognizing assumptions
      Recognizing fallacies
      Detecting inconsistencies in an argument
      Identifying ambiguity
      Identifying exaggeration
      Determining the strength of an argument
    7. Creativity Skills
    8. Fluent thinking
      Flexible thinking
      Original thinking
      Elaborational thinking
      Developing imagery
      SCAMPER modification techniques
      Attribute Listing
      Random Input
      Brainstorming
      Creative problem solving
      Synectics
  2. AFFECTIVE TRAINING

    1. Intrapersonal Skills
    2. Analyzing strengths
      Clarifying values
      Developing a personal framework for activism
      Developing a sense of humor
      Developing an ethical framework
      Developing moral reasoning
      Developing resiliency
      Developing responsibility
      Developing self-efficacy
      Developing self-esteem
      Developing self-reliance
      Developing task commitment
      Understanding integrity
      Understanding self-management
      Understanding image management
      Understanding learning styles
    3. Interpersonal Skills
    4. Developing environmental awareness
      Developing etiquette and courtesy
      Developing multicultural awareness
      Developing social skills
      Understanding assertiveness
      Understanding and developing leadership skills
      Understanding conflict resolution
      Understanding cooperation and collaboration
      Understanding nonverbal communication
      Understanding stereotypes
      Understanding tolerance, empathy, and compassion
    5. Dealing With Critical Life Incidents
    6. Coping with loss
      Dealing with change
      Dealing with dependency
      Dealing with failure
      Dealing with stress
      Dealing with success
      Making choices
      Planning for the future
      Understanding perfectionism
      Understanding risk-taking
  3. LEARNING HOW-TO-LEARN SKILLS

    1. Listening, Observing, and Perceiving Skills
    2. Following directions
      Noting specific details
      Understanding main points, themes, and sequences
      Separating relevant from irrelevant information
      Paying attention to whole-part relationships
      Scanning for the "big picture"
      Focusing on specifics
      Asking for clarification
      Asking appropriate questions
      Making inferences
      Noting subtleties
      Predicting outcomes
      Evaluating a speaker's point of view
    3. Notetaking and Outlining Skills
    4. Notetaking Skills
      Selecting key terms, concepts, and ideas
      Disregarding unimportant information
      Noting what needs to be remembered
      Recording words, dates and figures to aid in recall
      Reviewing notes and highlighting the most important items
      Categorizing notes in a logical order
      Organizing notes so that information from various sources can be added later
      Outlining and webbing
      Using outlining skills to write material that has unity and coherence
      Selecting and using a system of notation (e.g., Roman numerals)
      Deciding whether to write topic outlines or sentence outlines
      Stating each topic or point clearly
      Developing each topic sufficiently
    5. Interviewing and Surveying—Developing and Practicing the Use of:
    6. Identifying information being sought
      Deciding on appropriate instruments
      Identifying sources of existing instruments
      Designing instruments (e.g., check-lists, rating scales, interview schedules)
      Developing question wording skills (e.g., factual, attitudinal, probing, follow-up)
      Sequencing questions
      Identifying representative samples
      Field testing and revising instruments
      Developing rapport with subjects
      Preparing a data-gathering matrix and schedule
      Using follow-up techniques
    7. Analyzing and Organizing Data—Developing and Practicing the Use of:
    8. Identifying types and sources of data
      Identifying and developing data gathering instruments and techniques
      Identifying appropriate sampling techniques
      Developing data-recording and coding techniques
      Classifying and tabulating data
      Preparing descriptive (statistical) summaries of data (e.g., percentages, means, modes, etc.)
      Analyzing data with inferential statistics
      Preparing tables, graphs, and diagrams
      Drawing conclusions and making generalizations
      Writing up and reporting results
  4. USING ADVANCED RESEARCH AND REFERENCE MATERIALS

    1. Preparing for Type III Investigations:
    2. Developing problem finding and focusing skills
      Identifying variables
      Stating hypotheses and research questions
      Identifying human and material resources
      Developing a management plan
      Developing time management skills
      Selecting appropriate product formats
      Obtaining feedback and making revisions
      Identifying appropriate outlets and audiences
      Developing an assessment plan
    3. Library Skills:
    4. Understanding library organizational systems
      Using information retrieval systems
      Using interlibrary loan procedures
      Understanding specialized types of information in reference books, such as:
      abstracts
      almanacs
      annuals
      anthologies
      atlases
      bibliographies
      books of quotations, proverbs, maxims, and familiar phrases
      concordances
      data tables
      diaries
      dictionaries and glossaries
      digests
      directories and registers
      encyclopedias
      handbooks
      histories and chronicles of particular fields, organizations
      indexes
      manuals
      periodicals
      reader's guides
      reviews
      source books
      surveys
      yearbooks
      Understanding the specific types of information in nonbook reference materials, such as:
      art prints
      audio tapes
      charts
      data tapes
      CD Roms
      film loops
      films
      filmstrips
      filmstrips with sound
      flashcards
      globes
      maps
      microforms
      models
      pictures
      realia
      records
      slides
      study prints
      talking books
      transparencies
      video tapes, discs
    5. Community Resources:
    6. Identifying community resources, such as:
      art and theater groups
      clubs, hobby, and special interest groups
      college and university services and persons
      governmental and social service agencies
      museums, galleries, science centers, places of special interest or function
      private and community colleges
      private business and individuals
      private individuals
      professional societies and associations
      senior citizen groups
      service clubs
      universities
  5. DEVELOPING WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES

    1. Visual Communication—Developing Skills in the Preparation of:
    2. Audio tape recordings
      Filmstrips
      Motion pictures
      Multimedia images
      Overhead transparencies
      Photographic print series
      Slide series
      Video tape recordings
    3. Oral Communication—Developing and Practicing the Use of:
    4. Organizing material for an oral presentation
      Vocal delivery
      Appropriate gestures, eye movement, facial expression, and body movement
      Acceptance of the ideas and feelings of others
      Appropriate words, quotations, anecdotes, personal experiences, illustrative examples, and relevant information
      Appropriate use of the latest technology
      Obtaining and evaluating feedback
    5. Written Communication:
    6. Planning the written document (e.g., subject, audience, purpose, thesis, tone, outline, title)
      Choosing appropriate and imaginative words
      Developing paragraphs with unity, coherence, and emphasis
      Developing "technique" (e.g., metaphor, comparison, hyperbole, personal experience)
      Writing powerful introductions and conclusions
      Practicing the four basic forms of writing (exposition, persuasion, description, and narration)
      Applying the basic forms to a variety of genre (i.e., short stories, book reviews, research papers, etc.)
      Developing technical skills (e.g., proofreading, editing, revising, footnoting, preparing bibliographies, writing summaries, and abstracts)