As noted earlier, self-regulation is an
integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a
set of constructive behaviors that affect one's learning. These
processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal
goals in changing learning environments. Learners with high
levels of self-regulation have good control over the attainment
of their goals. Conscious self-regulation requires a student to
focus on the process of how to acquire these skills.
According to Barry Zimmerman (1989), self-regulated
learning involves the regulation of three general aspects of academic
||First, self-regulation of behavior
involves the active control of the various resources students
have available to them, such as their time, their study environment
(e.g., the place in which they study), and their use of others
such as peers and faculty members to help them (Garcia & Pintrich,
1994; Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1993).
||Second, self-regulation of motivation
and affect involves controlling and changing motivational
beliefs such as self-efficacy and goal orientation, so that
students can adapt to the demands of a course. In addition,
students can learn how to control their emotions and affect
(such as anxiety) in ways that improve their learning.
||Third and finally, self-regulation
of cognition involves the control of various cognitive strategies
for learning, such as the use of deep processing strategies
that result in better learning and performance than students
showed previously (Garcia & Pintrich, 1994; Pintrich, Smith,
Garcia, & McKeachie, 1993).
Many researchers have agreed with the importance
of self-regulated learning for students at all academic levels,
and remember, self-regulation can be taught, learned and controlled.
In fact, Zimmerman (1989, 1990), an expert in this area, has found
evidence of many different types of self-regulation that are explained
later in this module. In Zimmerman's studies, successful students
report that the use of self-regulated learning strategies accounted
for most of their success in school!